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What Is Rust?
Rust is a multi-paradigm, general-purpose programming language developed by Graydon Hoare at Mozilla. Syntactically, Rust is similar to C++. It demonstrates low-level access to hardware with a high-level, readable syntax, a common trait of middle-level languages.
Being multi-paradigm programming, Rust is suited for various programming paradigms, such as:
- functional programming
- imperative programming
- object-oriented programming
Rust also prioritizes safety and performance in its design.
Rust’s outstanding performance is largely due to concurrent programming, a feature of the language allowing two or more parts of a program to execute simultaneously. As a result, Rust is more efficient overall.
Likewise, a language that is safe is one that has an effecive memory management system to counteract security issues and software bugs.
Middle-level languages like C and C++ use a garbage colletion to automatically dispose of objects that are no longer in use in the program.
Instead, Rust uses a borrow checker for the same purpose. It ensures that references do not live longer than the data they refer to.
This happens only at compile time, as opposed to a garbage collector which runs continuously. It goes without saying that this is yet another feat of efficient design.
What Does a Rust Developer Do?
Rust developers generally use systems programming to build software for computer systems. In turn for application programming, this software runs on larger platforms like operating systems and industrial automation.
Some examples of the systems a Rust developer might build include servers, command-line interfaces, browser engines, and so on.
The general idea is that system programs look beyond the scope of mere web and mobile applications and work internally with the hardware of your computer.
As such, Rust developers must have a phenomenal grasp of the intersection of hardware and software and comprehend how the two work together.
The actual responsibilities and expectations of a Rust developer will vary depending on the project they’re working on.
Why Use Rust in 2022?
Two factors make Rust stand out amongst comparable programming languages: safety and control.
Though nearly or very likely every browser today, including Mozilla Firefox itself, is written in C++, memory manipulations for both C++ and its predecessor C++ are not checked for validity. This is by definition unsafe memory and by connotation, frankly dangerous.
If a C++ developer fails to write their code strictly with the utmost care, executing a program could lead to memory leaks, program crashes, segmentation faults, buffer overflows, and null pointers.
Whether or not you know the specifics of these consequences, what’s transparent is that these are not good things. Other languages like Haskell may extend a similar solution to Rust but lacks deep control.
In systems programming, developers need control over memory allocation. This is why low-level access is so important.
Rust can not only render such a control, but it will guarantee that the memory in question is safe.
What Are the Advantages of Rust?
Rust is both speedily and surely taking over the industry when it comes to performant, safe programming languages. C++ happens to be its main competitor; but rather than throwing bets on either side, let’s look at the facts.
There’s been an ages-old argument on whether dynamic or static languages are better. Dynamically typed languages wait until runtime to do any type checking while statically typed languages handle that during compilation.
The main advantages of dynamic languages are that they tend to be less verbose. They can also side-step compilation entirely so developers can move through the run and debug process faster.
However, Rust happens to be a statically typed language. Developers who love Rust like that static languages like Rust can catch errors and type mismatches sooner. You’ll get hints notifying you of bugs so you can have effective, clean code by the time you need to run it.
You’ve probably heard enough about this, but it’s worth mentioning again. In short, Rust is simply safer than its competitors.
There’s not much argument to be made, especially since C++ does not offer memory safety at all. What’s more, Rust provides borrow checking in turn for garbage collecting, which is much preferred.
Many of the features discussed make Rust an excellent choice for systems programming. Systems programming requires intentionally-made, complex but accessible languages.
To name a few that are readily able to fit these criteria, some well-known languages with middle-level appeal include C, C++, and Java.
Safety is an imperative feature for any programming, but more so for large systems that make use of concurrent programming.
That said, there are no other middle-level languages that can supply memory safety without garbage collection, save for Rust. Rust is mostly safety.
Rust is not merely a programming language but an ecosystem. Via rustup you can install Rust and various toolchains to start building complex software systems.
The Rust installation also comes with Cargo, a package manager where developers can manage dependencies and build their own packages.
You can share and discover libraries from fellow developers at crates.io and find documentation for those same libraries at docs.rs.
There are chats, user forums, and a subreddit as well for Rust. Decide to go with Rust, and you’ll be welcomed to a whole community who have done the same.
What Is Rust Used For?
Rust is generally used so that developers can work at the intersection between hardware and software. In the past, developers utilized middle-level languages like C and C++ to build complex computer systems.
Game engines, retail inventory systems, and hotel booking are all within Rust’s capacity as well. And since Rust permits developers to work with low-level details and middleware, you can utilize the langage on virtually any back-end.
In particular, Rust should bode well with embedded systems that have software infrastructure embedded within a more recognizable hardware casing.
Products like digital cameras, fitness trackers, and even your car GPS (if anyone still uses those) fall under this category.
10 Companies Using Rust in 2022
Here’s a look at 10 major companies using Rust and taking full advantage of its potential:
Dropbox: Dropbox is a cloud-based storage center, where both individuals and businesses can store massive amounts of data of almost any kind. Rust helped Dropbox rewrite some of its core systems, including Nucleus, the sync engine behind Dropbox’s entire system, where the software reads local files into a cloud Dropbox folder.
Yelp: Yelp allows people to leave reviews and check out local business via a welcoming user interface that comes in app form as well. Infrastructure engineers at Yelp use Rust to help them Scale. Though Yelp mostly relies on Python, they’ve figured out how to take advantage of Rust tooling by writing performant Rust code and calling it from Python applications.
Figma: Figma is a web-based design tool that promotes online collaboration between contributors. Like many companies using Rust, Figma was drawn to the language due to its ability to prevent memory bugs. However, Figma CTO Evan Wallace noted in the company blog that there are many additional perks to using Rust, such as improved server-side performance and scalability.
Android: Android is the mobile operating system behind some of the world’s most popular phones. After experiencing memory safety bugs in C and C++, Android finally opted to recruit Rust for its endeavors. The Android team also cited better error handling and data concurrency among many of the reasons they’re happy to utilize Rust.
Postmates: Postmates was the original food delivery service. And now it stands among numerous home dweller favorites such as DoorDash and UberEats. Rust isn’t a big player in the Postmates roster, but it is a mainstay in several background services happening in Postmates. Hopper and Cernan, for example, are both Postmates projects publicly available on GitHub that deal with complex data management issues.
Amazon: Amazon, the king of e-commerce, makes use of Rust as well. In spite of what Amazon is known for, much of the company’s power comes Amazon Web Services, an Amazon subsidiary providing a good portion of the web with on-demand cloud computing platforms. Firectacker, a virtualization technology for serveless computing, owes its credit to Amazon as well. Amazon employed Rust to design this product, knowing that Rust’s security features and high performance would deliver. But this is just one example. Amazon uses Rust in many of its products today, and has been actively sponsoring Rust since 2019.
Facebook: Hopefully, nobody’s a stranger to Facebook. It’s where nearly every mom, teen, and millennial connect online, scrolling through an endless feed of video, text, and photo updates. In addition, users can buy products, create and host events, and do countless other activities via the massive social media network. Facebook’s primary source control system, what software developers use to track and manage code, is built using Rust.
Discord: Any gamer worth their salt should know about Discord. Discord is a digital platform that allows people to connect online via voice, text, and video. User can create private groups and chats. The platform is well-known for its speedy service. Of course, gamers especially are keen on anything that does away with frustrating lag times. Discord uses Rust for its high-performance standards, asynchronous programming features, and memory management, among other factors.
Canonical: Canonical might not ring a bell to every Joe or Jane. But any Linux die-hard should know what’s up. And no, this isn’t about whether the Harry Potter movies are canon or not. Canonical is a company that produces computer software. The company is also the publisher of Ubuntu, a notorious, user-friendly Linux distribution that doesn’t get enough credit for its sleek design and secure features. In that same vein, Canonical uses Rust for server monitoring and other middleware tasks.
Atlassian: Atlassian is a popular software company that develops products for software developers, project managers, and other roles related to software development. GitHub, a version control system allowing developers to collaborate and coordinate with one another via the internet, is likely one of Atlassian’s most well-known products. Using Rust, Atlassian analyzes petabytes of source code. A petabyte is the equivalent of 1,000 Terabytes. Rust’s spectacular performance standards no doubt helps with the absurd amount of processing required for such a task.
Why Hire a Rust Developer in 2022?
Building a mobile app or a website is one thing, but developing an entire software system could be the key to long-term business growth. After all, major companies like Postmates and Google use Rust.
It’s up to you to think carefully about what project you want to put your energy behind. But while developing in Rust is definitely safe, it’s not easy to do on your own.
You need professional Rust developers to back you up and hold you down.
Considering that Rust was developers’ most loved language in 2016, and then the year after, and the year after, and the year after that, whatever Rust developers you find will be totally enthusiastic about their work.
To add, Rust is not a language for the faint of heart. Rust developers are systems programmers at their core. They can write extremely low-level code whether that be for operating systems or browser engines or something else entirely.
If you’re looking to hire a Rust developer, make sure you know how to recognize meaningful qualifications and skillsets. Trio can help you with that.
How To Hire the Right Rust Developer
For those who wish to take the high road and hire Rust developers on your own, we’re still here to help.
Hiring a developer on your own is a very focused and hands-on process that requires considerable knowledge about software development in general.
The last thing you want to do is trust your hiring process to someone with no technical ability. If you are a non-technical manager looking to learn a thing or two, we have a great resource here for you to learn more about the hiring process in detail.
Otherwise, we’d recommend you contact Trio for consulting and developer allocation.
What Skills do Rust Developers Need?
Qualified Rust developers should demonstrate the following:
- Prior experience in systems programming developing large systems
- An understanding of memory allocation in low-level programming
- Expertise in using the Rust programming language and its adjacent package manager Cargo
- Exceptional comprehension of how to implement concurrent systems
Rust Developer Job Description Template
Your job description for hiring Rust developers should be tailored to invite and welcome candidates to your business.
You will need to be descriptive, yet concise, and tell the reader exactly what you need.
The job description should consist of four main sections:
- Company Background: Explain what your business does and the mission or purpose behind your work.
- About the Job: Briefly describe what the job is and what service you’re looking for.
- Roles & Responsibilites: Use a bullet point list to outline the day-to-day duties the candidate should expect to fulfill if hired.
- Qualifications & Skills: List the must-have qualifications and skills that you want to have in an optimal candidate.
Top 10 Rust Developer Interview Questions
At the interview stage, you have to make sure you’re asking the right questions in order to enlist the right developer. Here’s how you might start off a Rust developer interview:
- Name at least three programming paradigms Rust supports.
- Describe the difference between a borrow checker and garbage collector.
- What is Cargo in Rust?
- What are the main differences between Rust and C++.
- Explain the purpose of the unwrap() function works.
- Define the term zero-cost abstractions.
- Describe what middle-level languages are and identify at least two middle-level languages other than C and C++.
- What keyword defines interfaces with object-oriented programming in Rust?
- True or False: Rust includes move constructors.
- In what situations would a developer use Cargo.lock vs. Cargo.toml in Rust?
How Much Does It Cost Hire Rust Developers in 2022?
In your research, you will find that factors like developer location and experience level have the most significant impact on their cost.
Here’s an overview of what you can expect.
How Much Do Rust Developers Cost in the U.S.?
The average Rust developer can expect to make $91,709 annually in the United States, according to ZipRecruiter data. Of course, salaries for Rust developers overall range from $19,500 to $146,000.
How Much Do Rust Developers Cost in South America?
Due to economic differences between the United States and South America as a whole, the cost of offshoring software development is significantly lower than hiring full-time with U.S talent. For Senior Rust Developers in South America, the average salary is currently around $100,000 whereas a mid-level developer costs around $76,000.
How Much Do Rust Developers Cost in Ukraine/Eastern Europe?
Eastern Europe shares very similar rates to South America, again due to the economic differences. When looking at salaries in Eastern Europe, data shows that a Senior Rust Developer costs around $100,000 on average.
Why Hire a Rust Developer with Trio?
Trio Rust developers are pre-vetted, interviewed and then trained further to become true software professionals, capable of adapting to situations that are both within and outside fo the scope of their general expertise.
At Trio, we hold our developers to a higher standard. Much like how elite special forces units recruit only the best from main branches of the military, we recruit developers who either show amazing potential or demonstrate exceptional skill. We then take their talents and sharpen them even further.
Another benefit of hiring a Trio developer is that you won’t incur the costs of hiring, which can add up to be around 30% of a developer’s salary on average, as well as overhead costs associated with full-time employment.
By working with Trio, you can enjoy a highly experienced full-time developer for a fraction of the cost, along with the added project management assistance.
Interested? Tell us about your project so we can get started!